Different Types of CPU in Computer (Central Processing UNIT)

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Types of CPU: CPU is defined as the electronic chip that controls all the working of a computer. Processor types are dependent on the number of core in it.

What is Processor (Definition)

A Computer processor is basically an electronic chip that controls all the working of the computer. In this blog post, we will discuss what is computer processor and various processor types.

What is Processor in Computer

The Processor is also referred to as a CPU(Central Processing Unit) or, in the personal computer, a “microprocessor.” It is a single integrated circuit that incorporates all the electronic components necessary for program execution.

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Main Functions of Processor

  • The processor does calculations (adds, multiplies, and so forth).
  • performs logical operations (compares and makes conclusions)
  • and maintains control of data transfer between devices.

The processor is in charge of all system actions and functions.

Typically, we refer to processor speeds in megahertz (MHz) and gigahertz (GHz) terms, as in 1.8 GHz Pentium.

How Processor Can Execute Instruction

The step for the execution of instruction or program is as follows

Step-1-Fetch an instruction from the memory,

Step-2- Decode the instruction (i.e., determine the instruction type),

Step-3-Execute the instruction (i.e., perform the action specified by the instruction).

In the first step, the instruction is fetched from the main memory after that the CPU decodes this instruction to determine what kind of operation is performed this instruction. In the last step, the processor executes the instruction.

Component of CPU (processor)

Microprocessor or Processor or some time CPU have three main Component

Register: Small and very fast memory locations that are used to store intermediate calculations.

ALU: Arithmetic and a logical unit that performed all the mathematical and logical operations like addition, subtraction, division, and comparison.

CU: The heart of the processor is CU (Control Unit) all the working of the CPU is controlled by this.

Block Diagram of CPU

This Block Diagram shows how modern Processors interact with another component like the Main Memory or IO (Input Output) Module of the Computer.

types of processor architecture

Types of CPU Processor Architecture

Reduced Instruction Set Computers (RISC)

• Performs simple instructions that require a small number of basic steps to execute

• Requires a large number of instructions to perform a given task – large code size

• more RAM is needed to store the assembly level instructions

• Advantage: Low cycles per second – each instruction is executed faster in one clock


• Example: Advanced RISC Machines (ARM) processor

Complex Instruction Set Computers (CISC)

• Complex instructions that involve a large number of steps (larger S)

• Fewer instructions needed (smaller N) – small code size

• Commands represent more closely to high-level languages

• Less RAM required to store the program

• Disadvantage: High cycles per second

• Example: Motorola 68000 processor, Intel x86

Different Types of CPU Processor in Computer

On the base of Core, we will describe the processors types in this blog post.

Single Core Processors Type

A single-core processor is a microprocessor on a chip with a single core that can only process and compute one thread at a time. The single-core system wastes a large amount of time as a result.

It is the first type of CPU still in use and is found in most personal and commercial computers. A single-core CPU can only execute one command at a time and is inefficient at multitasking. It implies that there is a clear performance loss while more than one application is running.

Dual Core

In the Dual-core type of processors, 2 independent cores are present.

A dual-core processor is a CPU that contains two processors, or “execution cores,” on the same silicon chip.

A single chip with two separate processors that collaborate. In the year 2000, IBM launched dual cores in their Power 4 processors. 

Dual-core processors are not reserved for complex applications; rather, common jobs can benefit from two concurrent processing streams.

CPUs that utilize dual-core technologies include the Intel Core Duo, AMD X2, and the dual-core PowerPC G5.

Quad-Core type of Processor

A type of microprocessor in which four cores are embedded in a single electronic chip. These core execute instruction independently. For example, one core is running graphic jobs, another deal with IO, and some other function.

Note This does not mean Quad-core processor is 4x with single-core because We do not take advantage of four core with present operating systems. (Types of CPU)

Core i3,i5,i7, and i9 consider the most powerful series of Intel microprocessors.

Some Common Intel Processor types Names (Types of CPU)

The most common processor types by intel are given below

Intel Core X-series processors enable powerful, high-end PCs with outstanding gaming and enthusiast performance.

With the latest Intel CoreTM i9 processors, you can enjoy excellent entertainment and gaming, as well as smooth 4K Ultra HD and 360 video.

Intel CoreTM i7 CPUs with built-in AI and Wi-Fi 6 provides a terrific entertainment and gaming experience.

Core i5 processor For immersive experiences and content production, the latest Intel CoreTM i5 processors include built-in AI and Wi-Fi 6.

Intel  CoreTM i3 processors are compatible with laptops that include built-in AI, integrated Wi-Fi 6, and next-generation graphics.

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